Those enemy actions may be immediate threats and also include use of electronic warfare via intrusive radio-frequency (RF) or infrared signals, jamming technologies, and more.

Advanced countermeasures range from physical chaff, flare, and decoy expendables to acoustic, infrared, and laser countermeasures. Electronic countermeasures (ECM) can also jam, modify, and/or deceive opponents' attacks using RF communications, and radar countermeasures systems.


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