This approach, which is a cross-department variation of the various service cross-domain doctrine, injects battlefield engagements with a convergence of speed and scale effects that can overwhelm an enemy, including near-peer adversaries, and clinch mission success. Achieving JADO success, however, involves extensive coordination and cooperation between all resources used in an operation drawn from each department of the DoD, including the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Space Force specialists.

Adopting JADO as doctrine. Implementing JADO effectively also requires each military department to re-think how operations will be carried out across the full continuum of a conflict, as well as how to best access that mix of all domains to benefit mission outcomes most. That represents a change in the military doctrine of how defense tactics work and the missions that need to be executed. While all change can be difficult, this change in doctrine aligns with U.S. air power theory that allows U.S. forces to quickly adapt to new situations while inhibiting the enemy’s ability to do the same. A significant part of that rethinking is to consider and act on the differences in technologies and operational elements traditionally used by the various branches, as well as what changes this interoperable “network-of-networks” approach will both require of them and make available to them for the first time.

Many technologies needed to fulfill JADO engender network and systems convergence to accelerate C4ISR situational awareness and decision-making while making it easier for forces across all domains to communicate and exchange data securely. Other technologies allow identity verification, sharpen munitions accuracy, make mobile systems field-adaptable, and more. Some of those include:

  • Adaptive Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) sensors
  • Cyber resilience systems and protocols
  • Distributed edge computing
  • Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and GPS mapping
  • High-speed data processors and ISR analytics
  • Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guidance kits
  • Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASSM) systems
  • Multifunctional Information Distribution Systems (MIDS) terminals
  • Tactical Data Links and Software-Defined Radio (SDR) communications

In addition, for these advanced technologies to be most effective for JADO, they must also be paired with an experienced, insightful, and constantly-evolving JADC2 (Joint All Domain Command and Control) structure. The incorporation of the C4ISR technologies mentioned above underpin that JADC2 structure, but its success also depends on organizational, budgetary, and doctrinal acceptance.

Challenges to achieving effective JADO missions start with addressing the traditional capability silos that have been a part of the U.S. military for decades, with each branch developing its own internal cross-domain solutions. Breaking through these silos to build interagency tactical cooperation and trust has psychological, technological, geographic, budgetary, and command challenges that all must be overcome throughout the DoD and intelligence community to assure enduring JADO success.

Considering the many structural, budgetary, training, and political challenges that need to be overcome to adopt and implement JADO and JADC2, as well as each service’s cross-domain solutions, most U.S. military departments and intelligence agencies choose defense community partner companies to help them develop the advanced technologies required. Partners with structures and personnel that generate fast technological innovation have a distinct advantage to fulfill demand for such an initiative’s success.


This information page is provided as a service to our readers by BAE Systems, Inc., a U.S.-based world leader in aerospace, defense, power, and intelligence solutions. Learn more about us here.

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