The electricity source can be onboard batteries, a hydrogen-fuel cell, overhead wires, like a trolleybus application, or ground-based non-contact conductors. Any of these options can be augmented with re-charging capability, through on-board mechanisms like regenerative braking and solar panels or off-board chargers and storage battery banks.
In addition to purely electric buses, series or parallel hybrid electric and accessory load reduction systems provide more alternatives to traditional diesel-powered buses. Given the options, integration challenges, and costs involved, electric propulsion and power system manufacturers include application engineering support to their prime bus manufacturer customers.
With concerns about air pollution's effects on human health, climate change impacts, the cost and future availability of fossil fuels, and even noise pollution, interest in more electrified transit systems and renewable energy alternatives to internal combustion engine buses will remain strong.
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