Bristol 152 Beaufort

A capable torpedo bomber that led to the development of the Beaufighter.
Air to Air photograph of Bristol Beaufort L9878 16X9 Air to Air photograph of Bristol Beaufort Mk I L9878
 

Designated by the Bristol Aeroplane Company as the Bristol Type 152, the Beaufort was twin-engine torpedo bomber design based upon the vast experience gained from the earlier Bristol Type 142 Blenheim light-bombers. It was a powerful, well-armed high performance aircraft which also led to the Bristol Type 156 Beaufighter, the aircraft which eventually replaced the Beaufort  in its maritime strike role.

 

In an unprecedented step, the Bristol Type 152 Beaufort was ordered 'off the drawing board', an indication of the RAF's urgent need for an effective anti-shipping aircraft. Although the design is considered to be similar to the Bristol Blenheim, the Beaufort it had a slightly larger wingspan with an extended fuselage, both longer and taller to accommodate a forth crew member and a semi-recessed torpedo.

 

After a number of teething problems with the Bristol Taurus engines, the prototype (L4441) finally flew on 15th October 1938.  Subsequent bombing trials from Boscombe Down revealed 'An exceptionally poor bombing platform' with an excessive tendency to roll - this was corrected on later aircraft with semi-circular plates fitted to the trailing edges of the upper wings which provided the required stability. 

 

The initial order was placed for 320 units which meant that due to its commitment to producing the Bristol Blenheim, only 78 units could be built at Filton with Blackburn Aircraft Company building the remaining 242 in Yorkshire.  This production balance was to be redressed later whilst the Department of Aircraft Production in Australia, also built huge numbers of what was known as Beaufort DAP. These were used to great effect in the Pacific theatre against the Japanese.

 

Engine development and reliability issues restricted initial UK production aircraft whilst Australian aircraft used the Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp. Later British aircraft used the improved and more powerful Bristol Taurus XX.

 

In all some 2,130 Beauforts were built, of which 700 were manufactured in Australia. The main production marks were the Bristol Beaufort I (1,015 built) and the Bristol Beaufort VIII (520 built).

 

Bristol 152 Beaufort displayed in RAF Museum London Bristol 152 Beaufort displayed as Mk.IIA DD931 at the RAF Museum London

 

The type saw service in all main fronts of World War II including a huge number operating with the RAF in Europe and North Africa.  Operating from bases in Egypt and Malta, Bristol Beauforts crippled the German supply lines, sinking a number of significant tankers and cargo-vessels. In addition, throughout the Pacific region, many consider the role of Bristol Beaufort within the conflict to have been fundamental to the success of the design.

 

Sadly, no flying examples survive today and there is only a relatively small community of aircraft, either on display or under-going restoration.

 

Specification


  Beaufort I Beaufort VIII
Powerplant Two 1,130 hp Bristol Taurus VI, XII or XVI. Two 1,200 hp Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp S1C3G
Span 57 ft 10 in
Max Weight 21,230 lb 22,500 lb
Capacity  Four crew (pilot, navigator, radio operator, gunner). Later operational aircraft carried six Vickers machine guns (2 in nose, 2 in dorsal turret, 1 in port wing and one pintle mounted to fire laterally from entrance hatch). One 1,650 lb Mk XII 18 inch torpedo or up to 2,000 lb of bombs or mines.
Max Speed 260 mph 265 mph
Range 1,600 miles 1,450 miles

 

Variants


Beaufort I (1,014 built) Two Taurus III, or VI, XII or XVI engines. 
Beaufort II (415 built) Beaufort I with 1,200 hp Twin Wasp engines.
Beaufort IV (1 built) One Beaufort II converted to 1,250 Taurus XX engines with four-gun dorsal turret.
Beaufort V to VIII (700 built) Australian-built, 520 of these as Beaufort Mk VIII.
Beaufort IX (46 conversions) Transport conversions of Mk VIII with seating for nine occupants.

 

Survivors


Beaufort Mk.VIII
A9-557
Australian War Memorial, Canberra. www.awm.gov.au/
Beaufort Mk.VIII
A9-559
Composite of several RAAF aircraft, displayed as Mk.IIA DD931 at the RAF Museum London. www.rafmuseum.org.uk/london/

 

Other information