Blackburn
B-25 Roc

A turret-equipped fighter intended for shipboard operations.
Blackburn B-25 Roc prototype L3057 Feb 1939 The first prototype Blackburn B-25 Roc L3057 photographed in February 1939.
 
The Blackburn B-25 Roc was Second World War Fleet Air Arm fighter, closely related to the B-24 Skua from which it was derived and developed in parallel.
 
The Roc, a two-seat, low wing cantilever monoplane, was designed by Blackburn Aircraft Company against Specification O.30/35 calling for a carrier-based turret-armed fighter. It was broadly a naval equivalent to the Boulton Paul Defiant which had seen success with the Royal Air Force.
 
Compared with the Skua, a number of structural changes were incorporated including an increase in the mid-fuselage width to accommodate the Boulton Paul power-driven gun turret, with its four 0.303 Browning machine guns. Critically and like the Boulton Paul Defiant, there was no fixed forward-firing armament.
 
Power was supplied by a Bristol Perseus radial engine driving a 3-blade propeller.  whilst other changes included the introduction of dihedral to the outer wing panels which resulted in the deletion of the upturned wing tips that had been used on the Blackburn Skua. Fittings were also provided as standard to allow for the aircraft to be operated as a Seaplane although relatively few aircraft were ever used in this configuration.
 
The gun turret rotated through a full 360 degrees with firing cut-offs being used to protect the propeller arc and the tail unit. A fuselage fairing aft of the turret was automatically retracted as the turret guns traversed the rear centre-line.
 
A 250 lb bomb could be carried under the wing centre-section with provision to carry four practice bombs under the wings and like the Skua and wing-mounted dive brakes / flaps were fitted.
 
Blackburn B-25 Roc 5 aircraft formation 9 aug 1940 A formation of five B-25 Roc II aircraft photographed on 9th August 1940.
 
A single production order for 136 aircraft was placed, this being sub-contracted to Boulton Paul at Wolverhampton due to Blackburn workload in respect of Skua and Botha production. There was no specific prototype and the first aircraft (L3057) was to fly on 23rd December 1938. 
 
As the aircraft was also intended to operate as a twin-float seaplane, two aircraft (L3057 and L3059) were sent to Blackburn’s Dumbarton factory to be converted to float operation. The landplane wheel wells were provided with waterproof covers and water rudders were added to the rear of the two floats. These were controlled pneumatically from the aircraft’s standard differential braking system.
 
Blackburn B-25 Roc Seaplane L3059 Helensburgh 11 39 Blackburn B-25 Roc Seaplane L3059 at Helensburgh in November 1939.
 
Roc floatplane trials were conducted in November 1939 at MAEE Helensburgh, close to the Dumbarton factory. Early results showed that it was directionally unstable in this configuration with on example (L3059) crashing just after take-off on 3rd December 1939. A further aircraft (L3057) was subsequently fitted with a larger fin beneath the tailplane whilst another (L3060) was flown as a seaplane. In March 1942, one aircraft (L3174) is recorded as operating with floats and a target-towing winch in place of its gun turret.
 
The Roc was flown by squadrons including 800, 801 and 803 during 1939 - 40. initially with patrols over the North Sea operating from RNAS Hatson.
 
The type operated briefly in small numbers from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. During the Norwegian campaign of 1940, 801 Squadron brought three of the turret-fighters aboard along with its Blackburn Skuas although they were little used due to their low performance and poorer endurance.
 
Rocs also took part in operations from airfields on the south coast of England during the Dunkirk evacuations and it was during this period that the type scored its first and only air-to-air kill, shooting down a Ju88 over Ostende.
 
A long-standing myth has arisen that the Roc never flew in combat and never landed on an aircraft carrier, due to this being stated in a number of older published sources. Both assertions are incorrect as more recent books on the Fleet Air Arm by David Hobbs, Peter C Smith and Matthew Willis (and John Dell's website) make clear.
 
However, the type’s poor performance and lack of forward-firing armament meant that it was not effective in air combat and consequently the Roc saw only a few months of operational service.
 
Blackburn B-25 Roc L3186 24 10 40 A late production Blackburn B-25 Roc photographed at Brough in October 1940.
 
The Roc was withdrawn from front-line service in 1940 but continued in a second-line role until 1944, serving with such units as No2 Anti-Aircraft Cooperation Unit, Gosport, 759 Fighter School at Yeovilton, 760 Fighter Pool at Eastleigh, 769 Sqn at Donibristle, 792 Target Towing Unit at St Merryn and so on.
 
Some aircraft were even used as airfield defence machine gun posts at No.2 Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit at Gosport with their gun turrets continuously manned.

Variants & Numbers Built

136 Blackburn B-25 Roc aircraft built, all by Boulton Paul at Wolverhampton. Small numbers operated in seaplane configuration.

Specification

Powerplant One 890 hp Bristol Perseus XII engine
Span 46 ft 0 in
Maximum Weight 7,950 lb (landplane); 8,670 lb (seaplane) 
Capacity and armament Two crew; Four 0.303 in Browning machine guns in Boulton Paul turret; provision for carriage of one 250 lb bomb or eight practice bombs
Maximum Speed 223 mph at 10,000 ft (landplane); 193 mph at 10,000 ft
Cruising speed  135 mph
Endurance  6hr (landplane), 4 hr (seaplane)

Survivors

No Blackburn B-25 Roc aircraft survive.