A higher-capacity and longer-range successor to the Viscount, operated by BEA and TCA.
Vickers Vanguard BEA G-APEA old livery taxiing The first production Vickers Vanguard G-APEA was initially painted in the earlier livery of BEA.
During the early 1950s, Vickers-Armstrongs began consideration of a successor to their popular Viscount design.
Discussions naturally centred on the needs of British European Airways (BEA) but it soon became apparent that Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA) would also be interested in such a project. The presence of two interested customers enabled Vickers to launch the design on a private venture basis.
The BEA requirements for the design were to carry more than 100 passengers over a range of 1,000 miles with reserves at a cruising speed of 370 knots. Trans-Canada Air Lines joined with BEA in developing the specification for the Vickers Vanguard although they later called for modifications.
Vickers Vanguard TCA CF-TKA Trans Canada Airlines joined with BEA in developing the specification for the Vickers Vanguard.
A low-wing four-engine layout was adopted based on the new Rolls-Royce Tyne turboprop engine. A fuselage shape known colloquially as a ‘double bubble’ cross-section was adopted to provide good space in the passenger cabin akin to that of a Boeing Stratocruiser, whilst allowing the carriage of significant under-floor cargo, this being an important consideration for both airlines.
A range of project studies were carried out before settling on the Type 950 Vanguard and two variants were envisaged.  The Type 951 for BEA and the Type 952 for Trans-Canada.
In July 1956, BEA contracted for 20 Type 951.
Trans-Canada however, found that the Type 951 could not meet their freight payload requirements with a full passenger loading on their longer-range routes. They required a modified variant (known as the Type 952) which featured a maximum weight increase from 135,000 lb to 141,000 lb, accompanied by airframe strengthening and a maximum ‘coach class’ seating capacity of 139 passengers. 
The Type 952 subsequently used the more powerful 5,545 ehp R-R Tyne 512 engines, rather than the 4,985 ehp Tyne 506 engines of the BEA Type 951.
In January 1957, Trans-Canada ordered 20 Type 952s, this order being consequently increased to 23 aircraft.
Vickers Vanguard MoS G-AOYW 20-01-1959 Prototype The prototype Vanguard takes off for its first flight from a wet Weybridge in January 1959.
The prototype Type 950 (G-AOYW) was first flown from Weybridge to nearby Wisley on 20th January 1959. The only change in configuration that arose as a result of flight testing was the introduction of a dorsal fin of increased size to replace the small fin-to-fuselage fillet initially used on prototype.
Vickers Vanguard BEA G-APEB air to air This photograph of the second BEA Vanguard G-APEB also shows the larger dorsal fin of the production aircraft.
The Type 952 Vanguard entered service with Trans-Canada at the start of February 1961 which was followed one month later by the Type 951 entry into full scheduled service with BEA although the aircraft had actually been used on an ad hoc basis during the 1960 peak Christmas travel period, flying between London and Paris.
In the interim, BEA had realised that they could benefit from some of the features of the TCA Type 952 and it was therefore decided to request a new variant, the Type 953 specifically for BEA.
The Type 953 had all the structural modifications required to increase its maximum weight to 141,000 lb and was typically configured with 135 seats even though it still retained the lower powered Rolls-Royce Tyne 506 engines. Subsequently, the BEA production order was amended, resulting in the purchase of six Vanguard Type 951 and fourteen Vanguard Type 953.
The Vanguards offered great load flexibility, high speed and low seat per mile costs, particularly with high density all economy seating. The type was however phased out of passenger service following the formation of British Airways in 1972.
Vickers Vanguard Merpati Nusantara Airlines PK-MVJ After leaving British Airways service, the Vanguard was used by several airlines including Merpati Nusantara of Indonesia.
A number of aircraft found their way into independent airlines with notable operators including Invicta Airlines, Air Bridge Carrier (ABC), Europe Air Services (France), Merpati Nusantara (Indonesia) and Air Trader (Sweden).
BEA still operated nine Vanguards which were modified to the ‘Merchantman’ all-cargo layout from 1969, with the first two conversions being designed and carried out by Aviation Traders Engineering Ltd (ATEL) at Southend Airport.
BEA modified the remainder at Heathrow, using kits from ATEL. This included a large forward cargo door measuring 139” by 80”. These Merchantmen continued in service with BA until late 1979 when the remaining five were sold.
Vickers Vanguard British Airways Cargo G-APEI Nine Vanguards were converted for cargo use by BEA as the V953C Merchantman; this is G-APEI.
Air Bridge Carriers Limited purchased several of the Merchantmen from BEA and operated them through until 1992 when it changed its business name to Hunting Cargo Airlines.
Hunting Cargo Airlines operated their last Merchantman flight on 30th September 1996 which is the last recorded flight of any Vanguard.  They donated the aircraft (G-APEP) to Brooklands Museum in Weybridge in October 1996 where it can still be seen today.

Variants & Numbers

Type 950 One only G-AOYW
Type 951 Six for BEA, 127 seat – 18 first class, 109 economy class
Type 952 23 for TCA, 141,000 lb maximum weight, 139 seats maximum
Type 953 14 for BEA, 141,000 lb maximum weight, typically 135 seats
Merchantman Two all-cargo conversions by Aviation Traders, seven by BEA
Total 44, including prototype


                                   Vanguard Type 952 (TCA) Vanguard Type 953 (BEA)
Powerplants Four 5,545 ehp R-R Tyne 512 Four 4,985 ehp R-R Tyne 506
Span 118 ft 0 in 118 ft 0 in
Maximum Weight 141,000 lb 141,000 lb
Capacity  3 crew, 2 stewards, 139 passengers 3 crew, 2 stewards, 135 passengers
Maximum Speed 425 mph 425 mph
Cruising Speed  412 mph 412 mph
Max Range 3,130 miles, 412 mph, 20,000 ft 3,015 miles, 412 mph, 20,000 ft
Range (max payload) 1,830 miles, 412 mph, 20,000 ft 2,020 miles, 412 mph, 20,000 ft


V953C Merchantman
Brooklands Museum, Weybridge, Surrey

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