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Hawker
Tempest

High speed fighter and ground attack aircraft, evolved from the Typhoon and precursor to the Fury / Sea Fury.
Hawker Tempest V prototype HM595 with Typhoon tail The first Tempest to be flown was the prototype Tempest V HM595, seen here with the Typhoon tailfin, originally fitted.
 
The Hawker Tempest, which was initially known as the Typhoon II, evolved as this suggests from the Hawker Typhoon, being fitted with a new thin section wing of elliptical planform.
 
The Tempest I was designed around the 2,500 hp Sabre IV engine in a clean installation, with wing-mounted radiators. The 45-strong Hawker Design Team, led by Sydney Camm, had decamped to Claremont Park, Esher following the bombing raid at Brooklands.  Despite this huge technical effort, delays with development of the Sabre IV engine meant that the first Tempest version to enter production was in fact the Tempest V. 
 
The first prototype (HM595) was flown at Langley for the first time on 2nd September 1942 with Phillip Lucas at the controls.
 
The Tempest V prototype initially retained a 'Typhoon-style' cockpit and tailfin although a dorsal fin was soon added, together with an all-round clear view canopy which was used on all production aircraft. The marque utilised a 2,180 hp Sabre IIA or IIB engine with a chin radiator and was armed with four 20mm Hispano cannons.
 
Hawker Tempest V 1st production JN729 JN729 was the first production Tempest V, first flown in June 1943.
 
The prototype Tempest I (HM599) flew on 24th February 1943 and, with its powerful Napier Sabre IV engine and exceptionally clean design, it achieved some 466 mph at 24,500 ft.  However, despite this impressive performance it did not proceed further due to 'engine production difficulties'.
 
Hawker Tempest I prototype HM599 The sole example of the very clean prototype Tempest I HM599 was flown in February 1943.
 
Tempest V deliveries to Operational Squadrons began in April 1944 and by the end of 1945 some seven squadrons had been equipped with the type which continued in service long after the end of the War. Flown without external armament, it was fast enough to engage German V1 flying bombs, shooting down some 638 V1s between 13th June and 5th September 1944.  Many figures are quoted regarding the success in combat of the Hawker Tempest with some suggesting a succesful engagement score of  7 to 1.
 
Some 800 Tempest Vs were built and a number of these together with Tempest VI aircraft were converted to target tug duties as Tempest TT.Mk5, fitted with a wind-driven target winch-pack being carried under the port wing.
 
The type continued in service in the target-towing role until 1953.
 
Hawker Tempest TT Mk5 SN329 Tempests were also used as target tugs and SN329 is seen here with a target winch pod.
 
In addition to intercepting the V1 in the air, the Tempest proved to be a potent ground-attack fighter with rocket projectiles and underwing bombs augmenting the heavy cannon armament. It was soon operating successfully against airfields, radar installations, railways, enemy transport and V1 launch sites across Northern Europe.
 
One Tempest V (NV768) was experimentally fitted with a Sabre V engine with an annular radiator, later being fitted with a very large ducted spinner that faired back into the lines of the engine cowling.
 
Hawker Tempest V NV768 with ducted spinner Hawker Tempest V NV768 was experimentally fitted with a ducted spinner and an annular radiator.

The second major production variant was the Tempest II, powered by the Bristol Centaurus IV engine.
 
The first Tempest II (LA602) was flown for the first time on 28th June 1943 and production of some 50 aircraft was contracted to the Bristol Aeroplane Company at Weston-super-Mare, which were additional to those built by Hawker at Langley which took the total to 402.
 
The first 'Bristol-built' Tempest II (MW374) flew for the first time on 4th October 1944 and although all production aircraft were initially powered by the Bristol Centaurus V engine, many were later upgraded to the Centaurus VIl engine.
 
Hawker Tempest II PR533 PR533 is a late production Tempest II, powered by the Bristol Centaurus engine.
 
Post-war, ex-RAF examples of the type were operated by India (89 aircraft) and Pakistan (24 aircraft) with Tempest IIs remaining in front-line service with both nations until 1953.
 
The final production variant was the Tempest VI which was a Tempest V fitted with a 2,340 hp Sabre V engine, albeit using a larger chin-mounted radiator.
 
Some 142 were built with the first prototype being a conversion of the original Tempest V prototype (HM595).
 
Hawker Tempest VI NX201 The Sabre V powered Hawker Tempest VI was the final production variant and featured a larger nose-mounted radiator.
 
The Tempest VI was too late to see action during the Second World Wa although four RAF squadrons operated the type in West Germany until 1949 when they were replaced by the De Havilland Vampire fighter-bomber.

Variants & Numbers

Tempest I Single prototype only HM599, Sabre IV engine.
Tempest II Two prototypes, production 402 by Hawker and 50 by Bristol. Bristol Centaurus engine.
Tempest III & IV Two prototypes (LA610 and LA614) for trials with Rolls-Royce Griffon engine. LA614 was not completed, but LA610 emerged as one of the Hawker Fury prototypes with a Griffon 85 engine driving a contra-rotating propeller.
Tempest V Prototype plus 800 production aircraft built by Hawker at Langley
Tempest VI 142 built by Hawker, powered by Sabre V engine with larger radiator
Total built Four prototypes and 1,394 production aircraft made up as listed above

Specification

Specification  Tempest II Tempest V Tempest VI
Powerplant 2,520 hp Bristol Centaurus V or VI 2,180 hp Napier Sabre IIA, IIB or IIC 2,340 hp Napier Sabre V
Span 41 ft 0 in
Maximum Weight 13,250 lb 13,540 lb 13,700 lb
Capacity & Armament Pilot, Four 20mm Hispano cannon, provision for two 500 lb or two 1,000 lb bombs underwing, or eight 60lb underwing rocket projectiles, long range fuel tanks etc.
Maximum Speed 442 mph at 15,000 ft 426 mph at 18,500 ft 438 mph at 17,800 ft
Range (normal / max) 800 / 1,640 miles 740 / 1,530 miles 750 miles

Survivors

Mk.II HA623 / MW848 Indian Air Force Museum, Palam, New Delhi, India www.urmilatravels.com/indian-air-force-museum.htm
Mk.II PR536 Royal Air Force Museum London, Hendon, UK www.rafmuseum.org.uk/london
TT.5 NV778 Royal Air Force Museum London, Hendon, UK www.rafmuseum.org.uk/london
 

Other information